According to the annals of history, long before the Spaniards came to the Island of Bohol there were already inhabitants and villages in the province with their own culture, language and religion. Villages were surrounded with thick forests, grassy hills and plains in which the place of Catigbian was part of it. The town got its name from a seed-bearing plant locally known as “Katigbi”.

In 17th Century when Spaniards came in the Province of Bohol, the first Catholic Church was built in Baclayon in 1595. Catigbian was one of the villages that comprised the said town. Spanish priests were sent to these villages to teach Christianity.

During the longest rebellion of Francisco Dagohoy, Catigbian, together with Sagbayan, Balilihan, Carmen, Inabanga and Batuanan (Alicia) were the villages that were controlled under his command.

Upon the fall of the Dagohoy rebellion in 1824, reintegration happened. Some people who, during the successful years of the rebellion regained lands from the Spaniards claimed their lots, some people from the coastal towns of Inabanga, Tubigon, Calape and Loon left their houses and settled in the hinterlands of Bohol. These settlers formed small villages, cultivated the land and planted crops as food source and livelihood.

In San Jacinto, a name to represent Bohol Governor Jacinto Borja, soon to rise town of Catigbian stood as an independent area. Spanish friars from nearby parish of Baclayon and the mother town of Balilihan sallied back to the place regularly to administer the mission.

It was in year 1848 that the Immaculate Conception Parish was organized and formed. It was also on that year that a chapel was constructed through the effort of the people. Spanish priests from the town of Baclayon regularly visit the chapel formally.

When the Filipino-American war broke out on February 4, 1899, American soldiers who came to the town burned both private and public buildings in the area in revenge for the ambushes the native rebels claimed over the foreign dominators. The chapel did not escape the fiery rage. The community was temporarily abandoned and the people fled to the mountains, some crossed the seas for nearby Leyte, the others went as far as Mindanao. That time, the deserted town regressed and was incorporated by the nearby town of Tubigon until Balilihan reasserted its claim and took the town as her own.

During the American Regime, laws were enacted, lands were subdivided and distributed to the people. Homestead Act was promulgated and implemented. With this fair system, people from the different towns like Cortes, Sikatuna, Maribojoc, Loon, Calape, Tubigon, Clarin, Sevilla and even from the Province of Cebu especially from the town of Barili and Dalaguete came to Catigbian on search for greener land to settle on. Schools were opened in some places in Catigbian. The entire old town of Catigbian was put to cultivation due the increase of population.

When the Filipino-American-Japanese war broke out, Catigbianons helped in fighting the Japanese enemies. They formed the so called “Bolo Battalion of the Resistance Movement”. They posted as guards both day and night in the different places of the town while most of their families were running and transferring from one place to another to evade the abuses of Japanese soldiers.

After the war, there was a strong clamor among the villagers to revive the old town of Catigbian. To create a greater power and force, the enthusiasts formed and organized a group known as “Ang mga anak sa Catigbian”. The cohesiveness and eagerness of the group to rebuild the old town of Catigbian pushed them to send Mr. Simplicio Maniwang to Manila to solicit the help of Congressman Simeon Toribio.

Luckily, On June 17, 1949, His Excellency President Elpidio Quirino by virtue of Executive Order No. 229 declared the town as an independent municipality and named San Jacinto, in honor of the late Gov. Jacinto Borja. Maniwang also manned the local government for almost a year.  After him, Mayor Leopoldo Blanco, Sr. held the highest position of the town.

Mayor Blanco was also credited as the one who changed the name San Jacinto to Catigbian, the town owning 17 original barangays namely: Poblacion, Haguilanan, Ambuan, Hagbuaya, Baang, Triple Union, Alegria, Causwagan Norte, Candumayao, Buenos Aires, Libertad, Cabanugan, San Isidro, Cambansag, Causwagan Sur, Caimbang and Cansange.

The town executives since the creation of the town are the following:

1. Simplico ManiwangJune 17, 1949-May 4, 1950
2. Col. Leopoldo P. Blanco, Sr.May 5, 1950- Dec. 31, 1955
3. Antero S. CanoJan. 1, 1956- Dec. 31, 1959
4. Lucas AsotigueJan. 1, 1960- May 31,1966
5. Hilario LungayJune 1, 1966- Nov. 11, 1978
6. Atty. Arnold R. LungayNov. 12, 1978- Nov. 28, 1987
 Feb. 2, 1988- March 25, 1992
 Transition period
7. Gaudioso L. RenegadoNov. 29, 1987- Dec. 7, 1987
8. Mrs. Magdalena L. GulleDec. 8, 1987- Feb. 1, 1988
9. Tifilito C. RulidaMar. 26, 1992- June 30, 1992
10. Aurelio B. Dinorog, Sr.July 1, 1992- June 30, 1998
 July 1, 2001- June 30, 2004
11. Frank R. Ordiz, Sr.July 1, 1998- June 30, 2001
12. Capt. Roberto L. Salinas, PN(Ret)July 1, 2004 up to June 30, 2013
13. Engr. Virgilio L. LurotJuly 1, 2013 up to June 30, 2019
14. Elizabeth Mandin PaceJuly 1, 2019 up to present